This paper deals about the recent day problems in Climate, Water, and Internet. The major causes and the solutions for the Climate Change, Global Water Crisis and Issues on the Internet are briefed on this paper.

Main Article:


Climate change is becoming an ever more important issue in our lives. We have come to realize that the modern ways of man place a enormous amount of stress on the Earth that nature simply cannot handle. Some of the climatic problems that are developing today, such as global warming, ozone depletion and El Nino, will have severe effects on reef ecosystems all around the world. Reefs might give us an early indication of the effects of global climate changes, as slight variations in sea temperature caused by climatic variations have already been shown to produce extreme responses from reef ecosystems.


The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope which surrounds the planet and revolves with it. It has a mass of about 5.15 x 1015 tons, and is held to the planet by gravitational attraction. The present day atmosphere is nearly uniform up to approximately 80 km above Earth's surface. The atmosphere plays a major role in controlling the planets' temperature. Only 58% of the energy crossing the outer edge of the atmosphere reaches the earth’s surface more on a clear day at the equator. The rest of the incident radiation is either reflected (by clouds, vegetation) back into space or absorbed (by clouds, carbon dioxide and other gases). The energy that reaches the earth warms the land and oceans. To keep the system in balance, an equal amount of energy is radiated back out to space. The outgoing energy is of a different wavelength to the incoming energy, and greenhouse gases trap this energy more easily than sunlight, so some heat energy is retained, and the earth stays at a temperature higher than space. Without the atmosphere, the average surface temperature of our planet would be -18°C. With the present day atmosphere, the average temperature is raised by approximately 33°C to 15°C. This is the Greenhouse Effect in which the atmosphere acts like a blanket to hold in some heat. The problem we face today is the enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect, leading to global warming. This Enhanced Greenhouse Effect comes about because of the addition of huge volumes of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere throughout the industrial age. The increased levels of greenhouse gases means that more heat is retained, and temperature increases until a new equilibrium is achieved. The greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, and CFC’s (Chlorofluorocarbons). The main sources of these greenhouse gases are combustion of fossil fuels, devegetation (clearing and burning of forests, urban development) and agriculture.


Large increases in the volumes of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are already apparent. At current rates of change, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere will double by the end of the next century. This rate of change in carbon dioxide alone may result in a warming of between 1.5 and 4.5°C. It is found that we have already experienced a rise of about 0.7°C since the start of the century. The most likely effect of sustained global warming will be a melting of the polar ice caps, and a rise in sea level, while on land the deserts will expand. It is feared that sea level could rise by as much as 80cm by the end of the year 2100. Coral reefs could possibly keep up with the rise in sea level, but a global rise in sea temperature could be devastating. The deep ocean may eventually absorb most of the temperature rise, but this may take hundreds or thousands of years. Another threat to marine ecosystems is the increase in ultraviolet radiation penetrating the atmosphere. This is a separate issue to the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect, but comes about due to the destruction of the ozone layer by greenhouse gases. Ozone is important in the high atmosphere to absorb UV radiation, and gases such as CFC's destroy it. UV radiation is harmful to many animals and plants, and one of the most important effects of increased UV is the inhibition of photosynthesis in plants and algae. Phytoplankton in the ocean may decrease in productivity, and this means that less energy is entering the food chain at the primary level, affecting the entire oceanic ecosystem. Another effect of increased UV is a possible change in the community structure of marine communities as they react to decreased production from plants, and animals resistant to UV replace more sensitive animals and plants.


This name was originally applied to a warm current that occurred each Christmas time, flowing south along the coast of Peru, bringing rain and increased temperatures. These warmer conditions usually last for a few months, but in some years the conditions may continue into May or June. The warm currents and changes in other atmospheric and current conditions over the Pacific Ocean interrupt the normal upwelling currents that occur off the Peruvian coast. These normal upwelling currents bring nutrients from deep waters, and make the waters of the region quite productive. When El Nino conditions interrupt the upwelling, some populations of fish and dependent seabirds are affected, and may disappear altogether. The name El Niño has now come to refer to those years where the phenomenon is exceptionally strong. It is now known that El Nino is a part of changes in atmospheric pressures, wind fields, surface ocean currents and rainfall all over the tropical Pacific Ocean, termed the "Southern Oscillation. There have been about 10 significant El Nino events over the past 40 years, occurring every 3-5 years. The El Niño event of 1982-83 was the most severe for the last 500 years, and had a major effect on the weather in South America, as well as significantly affecting global climate. The rise in sea temperatures in this period was up to 7 or 8°C. This rise in temperature caused massive coral bleaching on reefs around the eastern Pacific and places such as the Galapagos Islands suffered as much as 95% coral mortality. Little is known of how climate change will influence El Nino events, but it is possible that they may increase in frequency and severity. There is now some evidence to suggest that El Nino events used to occur every 7 or 8 years, and that the increase in frequency correlates with industrial development. Even if this is not the case, the El Nino phenomenon will be an extremely important factor affecting coral reef ecosystems in the eastern Pacific.


An important thing to realize when thinking about climate is that, atmospheric and oceanic circulation carries different climatic features all over the planet. For example, the emissions of greenhouse gases from industry in the Northern Hemisphere may contribute to increasing the Greenhouse Effect, which has implications for the entire planet. The days of "dump it in your own backyard" are over, as we realize that there is only one big planetary backyard! An increase in our industrial, agricultural and energy practices in the last 150 or so years has contributed to a buildup of 'Greenhouse' gases in the atmosphere. These gases are primarily responsible for global warming and ozone depletion. 


Solutions to the problems of climate change and reefs exist on a number of levels. It is important for governments to realize the urgency of this situation as reefs are not going to be able to withstand such dramatic changes in climate for long. Laws banning the production of CFC gases would help to slow down the rate of ozone depletion and global warming, encouraging the use of safer alternative measures.

Avoiding the use of aerosol cans that are powered by CFC gases would help to slow down the rate of ozone depletion and global warming. Emissions from automobiles are the 2nd largest source of greenhouse gases, which has to be eradicated. Forests produce oxygen and eat up carbon dioxide. They can really help solve the problems of climate change.



Three things happen to rain that falls on the ground: it evaporates, it runs off the surface and it infiltrates into the soil. The water that runs off the surface and that which is absorbed by the soil constitute the part that is available for the development of water resources for various uses. The amount of evaporation depends on the meteorological elements of temperature, amount of sunshine, wind speed and relative humidity and is practically beyond human control for large open surfaces. Conversion of natural vegetation areas into built-up ones considerably increases surface run-off and reduces infiltration into the soil and, hence, subsurface and underground water recharge.

Where natural vegetation has been replaced by concrete, asphalt or other surfaces that do not absorb water, almost the totality of the water that falls is converted into surface run-off, very little water is conserved and if the rainfall is intense, flash floods can result unless reservoirs are built to collect the water.

Before the establishment of an island-wide water distribution network, springs and wells were widely used to meet the water requirements of communities. In the late 1960s the development of underground water really began on a scientific basis. Today 51% of water for domestic use comes from underground sources which also supplies water for irrigation and industrial use. Water from underground sources is clean and does not require expensive filtration plants. Furthermore, it costs almost nothing and there is no loss by evaporation. We should therefore make optimum use of this gift from nature.

Desalination was recently proposed as a solution to our water scarcity problem. One of the main aspects of ocean water desalination is the impact on the marine environment. There are two major concerns: the intake of sea water and the outflow from the treatment plant. Open ocean water intakes result in mortality rates of 90%, of plankton, fish eggs and fish larvae in the ocean. The other concern is the outflow. The concentrated seawater has the potential to harm the marine ecosystems like algae, corals etc which are very sensitive to changes in salinity.

Rain harvesting is a new expression for a practice that must be as old as humanity; it is the collection of rainwater and its storage for later use. With water getting more scarce and more expensive, rain harvesting is becoming more widespread in many countries. Rain water can be used for most household purposes like watering the garden, washing the car, flushing the toilet, etc which in fact do not require treated water but which are the biggest consumers of domestic water. Water from surface reservoirs and boreholes has to be distributed to individual users through a system of reservoirs and a network of pipes.


Construction of wastewater treatment plants and reduction of groundwater over drafting appear to be obvious solutions to the worldwide problem; however, a deeper look reveals more fundamental issues in play. Wastewater treatment is highly capital intensive, restricting access to this technology in some regions; furthermore the rapid increase in population of many countries makes this a race that is difficult to win. As if those factors are not daunting enough, one must consider the enormous costs and skill sets involved to maintain wastewater treatment plants even if they are successfully developed.

Reduction in groundwater over drafting is usually very unpopular and has major economic impacts to farmers; moreover, this strategy will necessarily reduce crop output, which is something the world can ill-afford, given the population level at present.

At more realistic levels, developing countries can strive to achieve primary wastewater treatment or secure septic systems, and carefully analyze wastewater outfall design to minimize impacts to drinking water and to ecosystems. Developed countries can not only share technology better, including cost-effective wastewater and water treatment systems but also in hydrological transport modeling. At the individual level, people in developed countries can look inward and reduce overconsumption, which further strains worldwide water consumption. Both developed and developing countries can increase protection of ecosystems, especially wetlands and riparian zones. These measures will not only conserve bio, but also render more effective the natural water cycle flushing and transport that make water systems more healthy for humans.




 As the world approaches the twenty-first century it seems indisputable that technology has become an integral part of life. Functioning without phones, computers, faxes, e-mail and other recent technological advances seems impossibility and the ability to use these new tools is a requirement in both personal and professional life. While it may sometimes be difficult to measure the degree to which such technologies impact on our daily routines, upon closer examination the implications of their existence become quite blatant. We are surrounded by technology and it is inevitable that it will somehow play a role in our lives. Whether it is using a computer to type a term paper, sending a fax or creating a web page, technology is something that affects everyone.

Computers, and in particular the Internet, are achieving ever increasing importance in modern society. The question of who actually accesses the Internet is being considered as the business world examines the potential profits available through e-commerce. Pornography has taken to the Internet with a vengeance and the censorship debate is intricately caught up with this forbidden pleasure.

    It is the purpose of this paper to examine some of these issues and provide a clear backdrop for an analysis of how the Internet is evolving. More specifically, in this paper we will illuminate the arguments for and against censorship, look at the effects of language, ethnicity and nationalism on the Internet, examine the nature of pornographic businesses on the Internet and investigate the issue of Internet pornography.


The issue of censorship as it pertains to the Internet is perhaps the most controversial scandal surrounding technology today. It is necessary to examine the arguments from both pro and con censorship positions.  Censorship has been an issue for many decades, within the government and within public life. The debate centers around the rights of the individual as opposed to the rights of other individuals and collectivities.

 The Internet has become a breeding ground for the proliferation of free speech and expression. It is quite simple for just about anyone to acquire their own web page, upon which they may post a variety of textual and visual materials, according to their own preference. This represents the epitome of freedom of speech. This freedom of speech has allowed for the rapid growth of the Internet pornography business, and also for hate web sites to flourish.

The main fear is not so much that adults will be offended, for the fact is that they can choose not to visit "offensive" web sites. The fear, rather, is that "...many youngsters can navigate circles around their elders on the Net" and that children may be adversely affected by what they find online, either intentionally or inadvertently.

 Pro and con censorship arguments will now be examined in turn, including legal battles that have been fought on both sides.


People who support Internet censorship claim that their main concern is the welfare of children. They are worried about the quality of material that is being posted online. One solution that has been proposed by many concerned parents is the creations of a pornography lock or filter that would prevent objectionable material from being viewed in homes by children.

A kind of self-censorship is being advocated, since it is recognized by many that parents have a responsibility to protect their children from offensive material. We are talking about our most important and precious commodity - our children. We cannot simply throw up our hands and say a solution is impossible or the First Amendment is so sacrosanct that we must stand idly by while our children are inundated with pornography and smut on the Internet.

The Communications Decency Act was perhaps the paramount achievement for the pro-censorship position. It solidified the idea that freedom of speech applies only to those adhering to respectable societal values, and that social rights outweigh individual rights.


The people who do not support censorship on the Internet can best be characterized as leftist civil-libertarians who hold up the values of freedom of speech and expression to be applicable to every citizen, not just those whose ideas fit the mainstream views and tastes of society.

One of the main arguments against censorship is that the objectionable material on the Internet must be consciously accessed, so it all depends upon choice. It is not the case that pornographic sites are automatically loaded onto the computer inadvertently; rather, one must know the address of these sites in order to visit them. One web page promoting free speech notes that books, magazines and other printed material must physically be brought into our homes, so they are considered ‘invited’ and cannot be censored. By purchasing a computer and using software to peruse their Internet, we ‘invite’ information into our home. The information available on the Internet should be treated like information available in books and magazines and should not be censored.

One suggestion that both the anti and pro censorship sides appear to agree on is the promotion of parental or server imposed filters, in order to avoid the possibility of children viewing offensive material. However, there are different points of view regarding this new technology. Pro-censorship advocates claim that this technology does not go far enough, and since children are often able to navigate themselves beyond these roadblocks, governmental legislation is necessary. They feel, however, that servers promoting lock-out programs is a step in the right direction towards making the government realize that control is necessary. On the other side, anti-censorship proponents support some lock-out devices, but the majority worry that promotion of this sort of small-scale censorship will merely increase the pressure for more governmental control. The pro-censorship position argues that we need to protect ourselves from indecent material for the sake of our own safety and the safety of our children. The concern is for a morally healthy society. The anti-censorship position is primarily concerned with the protection of our rights to free speech.  

Censorship is then, in a very real sense, composed of ethnic and nationalistic issues. It is important to realize that censorship is not something that stands on its own, independent of other factors. The reasons behind why things are censored or not censored are often found in the culture of the country in question. The following section looks at who actually uses the Internet and whose interests are being served by it. The influence that language has upon use of the Internet, the amount of ethnic specific sites available and the interrelated nature of censorship and nationalism will be examined.


 It is generally accepted that the Internet is a global phenomenon, a vast maze of information gathered from all over the world. If this is true, why is it that around 80 percent of electronic communication is thought to take place in English?  Why do Americans constitute the overwhelming majority of Internet users? Is the Internet truly global, or do linguistic, ethnic and nationalistic considerations play a far more important role than we would like to admit? This section of the paper will take a look at those cultural considerations and examine the Internet in light of what is revealed.

With controversial issues such as child pornography and hate literature being focused on by the media and governments, the issue of languages on the Internet has received very little attention. This is somewhat ironic in that it is difficult if not impossible to access child pornography or hate literature if you do not speak the language that most Internet content and Internet applications are written in, namely English. If an Internet user does not speak English, the Internet suddenly becomes a much smaller place. Not being able to understand the language means that anything other than pictures are unintelligible and finding pictures is largely reliant on following the directions to them, written, of course, in the language in question. While there are some sites and applications in other languages, by far the majority of sites and information are in English.

The reason as to why this is so is found in the history of computers and the Internet. This history has been "almost entirely an American affair and as such the language used in the programs, the manuals and by computer users was English. As computers were developed in the US it is not surprising that the first mass usage of them took place in that country as well. Although the Internet is considered a global forum, its development was again based in the US. From its initial beginnings as a military communication network to its current far-flung structure, the Internet has been an American invention. This tends to be forgotten in the media rush to classify it as a truly global system, but it is nonetheless true. As with most inventions, common usage and new advances take place in the country it was invented in.

The development of English as the language of the Internet has made possible things that would be very difficult if many different languages had equal presence in the Internet. An example is that of speaking with others in chat rooms and newsgroups discussions. Indeed, "A conversation over the Internet between academic physicists in Sweden, Italy and India is practical only if a common language is available. The Internet increases communication between countries, but a technological method of communication requires a linguistic method of communication. With English assuming this role in such a strong fashion it is doubtful that any other languages will be able to achieve a similar status on the Internet. While other languages will continue to be present on the Internet, English is the language of the net.

 Language therefore plays a very important role in the Internet, by restricting full access to those who speak English. The issue of ethnicity on the Internet is connected to language as in discussing ethnic issues on the Internet we are talking about those issues that are "pertaining to distinct nations or tribes". As discussed, the Internet caters to those who speak English, namely Americans. The Internet is easily accessible to those who come from countries which speak English. In addition to the US, countries with English as their first language include Canada, Britain, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and several Caribbean countries - all of whom have an easy time finding sites and information in their own language. In a very real sense, most sites on the Internet are ethnic specific sites, as they are written in English for an American audience. The fact that non-Americans can and does access the sites is a bonus but not the original reason that the sites were set up. Many of the sites sell some product or another, aimed specifically at an American market and seeking American dollars.

Other countries do have ethnic specific sites and the chances of such sites being written in a language other than their native tongue are much greater than those non-American sites seeking an international audience.   Another aspect of the Internet that has recently come to the media's attention is that of nationalistic concerns being broadcast through the Internet. Nationalism is defined as the "assertion of the rights, cultural values, etc. of a nation" and the unfettered nature of the Internet has made it an ideal place for users to push their nationalistic views on a large audience.

Though the Internet has the potential to become a truly international and global forum, as it currently stands it is little more than an American computer network with a small percentage of foreign users and sites. Language barriers prevent many users from accessing the Internet; ethnic specific sites are relatively rare when compared to the number of American specific sites and nationalistic values push for censorship of certain topics and areas. While such censoring may done with the best of intentions, by their very nature they prevent the Internet from becoming what it could: a true forum for communication where each user has the option of deciding for him or herself what they wish to view or not view.

If the Internet is not then, a truly global forum, what is it? It is supposed to be a medium for the expression and distribution of the cultures of local groups and individuals, yet it has become a "medium for the hegemony of the white, western world." The answer to the question of what the Internet is lies within the areas discussed above. With the development of computers and the Internet largely an American affair it is not surprising that most of the users of the Internet come from America. The language barrier adds another stumbling block to the equation, as non-English speaking countries encounter great difficulties in using the English dominated Internet.

Canadian and European users make up most of the rest of Internet users, so the Internet is indeed a medium for the western world. The following chart shows connectivity around the world, but as stated it is important to realize that while the countries may be somewhat connected, usage is nowhere near as common as in the US.

Now that the issue of who uses the Internet has been dealt with and the effects of language, ethnicity and nationalism on the Internet have been discussed, the focus can turn to a hotly debated topic, that of Internet pornography. Pornography is often focused upon by the media as being the main reason the Internet is used. As mentioned earlier, different countries have different ideas on the issue of pornography with what is censored in one country being easily accepted in another. The following section will examine the issue of pornography on the Internet, who has access and the social and personal ramifications of easy, anonymous access.


    At the very essence of the debate on censorship is the issue of freedom of expression; "freedom to create in fidelity the artists’ vision and freedom to share in the vision of the artist if we chose". While it is arguable as to what degree pornography can be seen as "art", current laws on pornography are based on standards which limit the choice of the individual. Furthermore, while this choice may be limited within specific communities, with the reality that we are becoming a global community, control in certain areas can be eroded through accessibility through such means as the Internet. Therefore, it is often difficult to monitor who has access to these forms of media. While it is equally difficult to be tolerant of pornography, perhaps it would be more useful to create a means of challenging it other than censorship.

 Rather than challenging it, however, international government bodies, have been quick to impose "Communications Laws" in response to the concern of parents whose children are gaining easier and greater access to pornography via new mediums such as the Internet.

 Censorship has always been controversial; therefore, it is only natural and inevitable to apply the same debate to the Internet, and for it to be met with similar strife.  One of the most pressing issues surrounding this controversy is the accessibility that children have to pornography through such innovative means as the Internet.

As it appears, for a long time, parents have been is search for laws and devices which hamper children from accessing various forms of pornography, however, it becomes "even more challenging with the World Wide Web” The Internet is a distinct form of mass media in which, essentially, the only person who regulates what is being seen, is the person controlling and clicking the mouse. The protective agents that might shield children from viewing harmful material are not in place on the net.   

In order to understand the relationship that the individual may have with the debate on pornography, paying particular attention to its expedience by way of new forms of mass media, namely the Internet, it is useful to first examine the interdependency that surrounds the individual and technology and how this relationship is used as an inherent tool in deciphering the status of pornography via the net.

Technology and in particular, the Internet, due to their popularity and access, have become central issues pertaining to sociological debates. When one studies popular media, one must examine the effect it has on the individual and in a larger context, society as a whole. More specific to popular media, the Internet is a powerful medium for the transmission of thoughts and ideas that reach "virtually" billions of people. Therefore, perhaps one of the greatest age old debates, censorship, has no choice but to find itself caught up in the frenzy of the Internet.  

 It is naive to believe that pornography on the Internet works as the sole tool of oppression in the media. We are constantly bombarded with images that portray women as objects, furthermore, depict the violence they suffer; "civil libertarians are not being alarmist when they warn that laws meant to catch pornography that show the mutilation of women could also b applied to the war coverage on the news?" While this point may seem extreme, one must consider the consequences that censorship suggest and while laws may, in essence, serve to protect, in order for them to be inclusive, they must address all aspects of everyday life rather than being selective.

 If images are simply removed from view, or not allowed to be seen on the Internet, do they disappear altogether? It can be argued, "no" and that censorship clearly just masks what we see as distasteful; "censorship strategies being suggested by the anti-pornography movement are not going to work because censorship is essentially an attempt to reform mass media by removing from public view those images that are most offensive to women." While these images may "disappear from public view", they still exist, and rather than censoring them, they should be examined introspectively and attempts to determine why they exist in the first place should be sought.

 If the fight against pornography is being fought to include members of society, than challenging it is acceptable, but censoring it is near impossible because there is no way to draw the line without the debate turning into one of morality. Individual contain within themselves their own morality and ethics, therefore, a censor board can only further exclude members of society then they create laws based on their own perceptions of right and wrong. Through an inability to determine the degree of offensiveness relating to pornography or any other sexually explicit material, a decision needs to be mad whether to abolish all such representation or whether (to an extent of course) allow the distribution of certain pornographic material via the Internet, to continue within a certain context. To be "anti" censorship does not mean that one is "pro" porn, rather, it is argued that while an attempt may be made to clean up one area of society, it will, in turn, have potential of damaging another realm.

One reason that pornography is present on the net is that of simple demand. Internet users are willing to spend money on buying pornography and entrepreneurs are quick to realize the potential. Internet businesses are springing up at a very fast rate, with the sex industry in particular creating new sites and businesses every day. The following section examines the presence of business on the Internet and takes a look at the motives, current effects and pending implications of this new form of commerce.


This paper has attempted to illustrate the multifaceted complexities and difficulties that are presented to us by the Internet. It is now evident that virtually all spheres of modern life are affected by, and contribute to Internet technology. Due to the pervasive nature of computer technology in contemporary society, we are all increasingly influenced by the Internet. The contentious issues surrounding technology should be critically examined by all individuals, lest we fall victim to passive acceptance of societal norms and values which we have had little role in shaping. The following paragraphs sum up the main points of each individual section so that a clear picture of the situation of these issues as they relate to the Internet is formed.

Censorship is an issue that has its roots in historical culture and society. The rights of the individual versus the rights of the collective are at the heart of the debate.   Language, Ethnicity and Nationalism play a relatively unnoticed but nonetheless powerful role in the Internet.  Nationalistic concerns play an important role as well, as countries attempt to force their morals and laws upon the Internet.  Due to its unfettered nature as an international system, the Internet rejects censorship and other similar constraints upon it. The three forces of language, ethnicity and nationalism play a far greater role in the development and structure of the Internet then is currently recognized.

Pornography is available in virtually all forms of media, and the multi-faceted nature of the Internet provides no exception. Because there are few ways to monitor and control the proliferation of pornography on the Internet, it has become one of the largest industries online. Moral decisions in the form of obscenity laws always involve a value judgement made by those in power. The purpose of these obscenity laws is primarily to protect children from accessing objectionable material. The fact remains that controlling or censoring pornography on the Internet is fundamentally a moral issue. Thus, censoring pornography is an attack upon a growing and highly popular business on the Internet.

In summary, these four areas are ones that will undoubtedly continue to be of importance to the organization of the Internet. Through investigations of censorship, language & ethnicity, pornography and business issues, this report illustrates the current and future implications of the growth of the Internet. Clearly, there are still many issues that will arise and demand the attention of the Internet user. It is only by being informed about these issues that an intelligent choice may be made.

Submitted by

Raga Jothi.G


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Posted On:  Thursday, 11 October, 2012 - 17:57

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