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Accumulation of galactose in the blood. Caused by lack of one of the enzymes needed to break down galactose into glucose.
The organ that stores the bile made in the liver. Connected to the liver by bile ducts.  Eating signals the gallbladder to empty the bile through the bile ducts to help digest fats.
The solid masses or stones made of cholesterol or bilirubin that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
Group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system
The death of body tissue, secondary to loss of blood flow.
Gardner's Syndrome
A condition in which many polyps form throughout the digestive tract. 
An operation to remove all or part of the stomach.
Related to the stomach.
Gastric Juices  
Liquids produced in the stomach to help break down food and to kill bacteria.
Gastric Resection
An operation to remove part or all of the stomach.
Gastric Ulcer  
See Stomach Ulcer
A hormone released after eating. Gastrin causes the stomach to produce more acid.
An inflammation of the stomach lining.
Gastrocolic Reflex  
Increase of muscle movement in the gastrointestinal tract when food enters an empty stomach. May cause the urge to have a bowel movement right after eating.
An infection or irritation of the stomach and intestines.a.
A doctor who specializes in digestive diseases.
The field of medicine concerned with the function and disorders of the digestive system.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)  
Flow of the stomach's contents back up into the esophagus happens when the muscle between the esophagus and the  lower esophageal sphincter is weak or relaxes when it shouldn't. May cause esophagitis. 
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract  
The muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. Also called the alimentary canal or digestive tract.
A form of nerve damage that affects the stomach. Food is not digested properly and does not move through the stomach in a normal way, resulting in vomiting, nausea, or bloating and interfering with diabetes management. 
An artificial opening from the stomach to a hole (stoma) in the abdomen where a feeding tube is inserted.
A basic unit of heredity. Genes are made of DNA, a substance that tells cells what to do and when to do it. 
Generic Drug Name
The generic or common name of a drug is its more-or-less scientific name created by agreement among manufacturers and physicians. 
A parasitic infection from spoiled food or unclean water. May cause diarrhea.
Gilbert Syndrome  
Inceased level of bilirubin in the blood secondary to lack of a liver enzyme needed to break down bilirubin.
An eye disease associated with increased pressure within the eye. Glaucoma can cause impaired vision and blindness.
Glomerular filtration rate
Measure of the kidneys' ability to filter and remove waste products.
Bunch of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys where the blood is filtered and waste products are removed.
A hormone that raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. The alpha cells of the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans) make glucagon when the body needs to put more sugar into the blood.
A simple sugar found in the blood. It is the body's main source of energy; also known as dextrose.
Glucose Tolerance Test
This is the test to see if a person has diabetes. The test is given in a lab or doctor's office in the morning before the breakfast. A first sample of blood is taken from the person. Then the person drinks a liquid having gucose. After one hour, a second blood sample is drawn, and, after another hour, a third sample is taken.
A protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. In people who can't digest it, gluten damages the lining of the small intestine or causes sores on the skin.
Gycosylated Hemoglobin Test
A blood test that measures a person's average blood glucose (sugar) level for the 2- to 3-month period before the test. 
a hormone that promotes gonad (sex gland) growth and function
A kind of arthritis caused by the reaction of the body to needle-like crystals of uric acid that accumulate in joint spaces causing inflammation, swelling, and pain in the affected joint.
A mass of red, irritated tissue in the GI tract found in Crohn's disease.
Granulomatous Enteritis  
See Crohn's disease