Low energy (Calorie) diet

Approximately: Protein 60 g. Carbohydrate 100 g. Fat 40 g.
Energy 1000 kcal (4184 kJ)


 Early morning

Cup of tea, milk from allowance, if desired.


1 egg or 30 g (1 oz) grilled lean bacon (2 rashers) or cold ham or breakfast fish.
20 g (2/3 oz) white or brown bread, or exchange, with margarine or butter from allowance.
Tea or coffee, with milk from allowance.


Tea or coffee, with milk from allowance, or 'free' drink from Group A3.
1 cream cracker or water biscuit.

 Mid-day meal

Clear soup, tomato juice or grapefruit, if desired.
Small helping 60 g (2 oz) lean meat, ham, poultry, game or offal or 90 g (3 oz) white fish (steamed, baked or grilled) or 2 eggs or 45 g (1 1/2 oz) cheese.
Salad or vegetables from Group A1 as desired.
40 g (11/3 oz) bread (white or brown) or exchange, with margarine or butter from allowance if desired.
1 portion of fruit from bread exchange list below.
Tea or coffee with milk from allowance.


20 g (2/3 oz) white or brown bread, or exchange, with margarine or butter from allowance.

 Evening meal

Clean soup, meat or yeast extracts, tomato juice or grapefruit, if desired.
Small helping, 60 g (2 oz) lean meat, ham, poultry, game or offal or 90 g (3 oz) white fish (streamed, baked or grilled) or 1 egg or 45 g (1 1/2 oz) cheese.
Salad or vegetables from Group A1 as desired.
40 g (11/3 oz) bread (white or brown) or exchange, with margarine or butter from allowance if desired.
1 portion of fruit from list below.
Tea or coffee with milk from allowance.

 Before bed

Tea or coffee with milk from allowance.
1 cream cracker or water biscuit.

 Allowance for day

200 ml (1/3 pint) milk semi-skimmed or skimmed.
15 g (1/2 oz) margarine or butter

 Exchanges for 20 g (2/3 oz) bread (1/2 slice from a large cut loaf)

 2 cream crackers
 1 1/2 of any crispbread
 2 water biscuits
 1 oatcake

1 potato (the size of a hen's egg)
1 portion of fruit (from list below)

 Exchanges for 40 g (11/3 oz) bread (1 slice from a large cut loaf)

 4 cream crackers
 3 ryvita
 2 oatcakes

2 potatoes
4 water biscuits

 Fruit list: 1 medium apple, 1 orange, 1 pear, 1 small banana, 10 grapes.


Weight-maintenance diabetic diet

Method of constructing the diet restricted in carbohydrate containing approximately 1800 kcal (7560 kJ) with 230 g carbohydrate, 72 g protein and 66 g fat suitable for adults with diabetic mellitus.

Use is made of the Atwater calorie conversion factors of 4,4 and 9 kcal/g for carbohydrate, protein and fat respectively. Each carbohydrate exchange contains approximately 10 g carbohydrate, 1.5 g protein and 0.3 g fat. Calorie value is about 50 (equivalent to 20 g bread).
Each protein exchange contains approximately 20 g 7 g protein and 5 g fat. Calorie value is about 70 (equivalent to 30 g meat).
Each fat exchange contains approximately 12 g fat and almost no carbohydrate or protein. Calorie value is about 110 (equivalent to 1/2 oz butter). One pint of milk contains approximately 30 g carbohydrate, 18 g protein and 24 g fat. Calorie value is about 400.
In practice, for quick construction of a diabetic diet it is usually only necessary to work in terms of grams of carbohydrate and total calories. Thus, a diet prescription for 230 g carbohydrate, 1800 kcal would be calculated as follows:

1. The daily intake of carbohydrate (230 g) represents 23 carbohydrate exchanges.

2. The daily allowance of milk is decided, either on the basis of the patient's food habits or special requirements. In this example it is 400 ml (2/3 pint), which contains 2 carbohydrate exchanges, leaving 21 for distribution throughout the day.

3. The daily allowance of protein is then decided. Four protein exchanges will provide 280 kcal.

4. The calories allocated so far amount to 1590; a further 220 kcal are needed to bring the total up to approximately 1800 kcal. This must be provided by fat. As one fat exchange provides 110 kcal, two are needed.


Exchanges Grams of
400 ml (2/3 pint) milk =
2 carbohydrate exchanges
21 carbohydrate exchanges
4 protein exchanges
2 fat exchanges
Grand total


5. Finally, the exchanges (23 carbohydrate, 4 protein, and 2 fat) are distributed throughout the day according to the eating habits and daily routine of the patient.
Useful CHO exchanges
Each item on this list = 1 CHO exchange (10 g CHO):
1/2 slice bread from a large loaf, 1 large digestive biscuit, 2 cream crackers, 8 tablespoons natural unsweetened orange juice or grapefruit juice, 1 medium-sized eating apple or orange, 10 grapes, 1 small banana, 1/3 pink milk, 1 teacup cooked porridge, 1 teacup of cream or tinned soup, 2/3 teacup cornflakes, 1 small packet of crisps, one small potato.

Unmeasured diabetic diet

Patients, who are unable to measure their diet or for whom this is necessary, are given a list of foods which are grouped into three categories.

I. Foods to be avoided altogether :
1. Sugar, glucose, jam, marmalade, honey, syrup, treacle, tinned fruits, sweets, chocolate, lemonade, glucose drinks, proprietary milk preparations and similar foods witch are sweetened with sugar.
2. Cakes, sweet biscuits, chocolate biscuits, pies, puddings, thick sauces.
3. Alcoholic drinks unless permission has been given by the doctor.

II. Foods to be eaten in moderation only :
1. Breads of all kinds (including so-called 'slimming' and 'starch-reduced' breads, brown or white, plain or toasted).
2. Rolls, scones, biscuits and crispbreads.
3. Potatoes, peas and baked beans.
4. Breakfast cereals and porridge.
5. All fresh or dried fruit, tinned fruit in natural juice.
6. Macaroni, spaghetti, custard and foods with much flour.
7. Thick soups.
8. Diabetic foods.
9. Milk.
10. Meat, fish, eggs and cheese.

III. Foods to be eaten as desired :
1. Clear soups or meat extracts, tomato or lemon juice.
2. Tea or coffee.
3. Cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, turnip, runner of French beans, onions, leeks or mushrooms, lettuce, cucumber, tomatoes, spring onions, radishes, mustard and cress, asparagus, parsley, rhubarb, gooseberries, lemons, black-berries, grapefruit.
4. Herbs, spices, salt, pepper and mustard.
5. Saccharine and aspartame and other preparations for sweetening.
6. Sugar-free squashes and fizzy drinks.

IV. For overweight diabetics butter, margarine, fatty and dried foods must be restricted .

Fat-modified diet for hypercholesterol conditions

Low in saturated fats and cholesterol with increased amounts of polyunsaturated fat. For people with elevated plasma cholesterol.

Foods to be avoided:
Butter and hydrogenated margarines. Use polyunsaturated margarine, e.g. 'Flora'.
Lard, suet, shortenings and cakes, biscuits and pastries made with these.
Fatty meat and visible fat on meat, meat pies, sausages and luncheon meats.
Whole milk and cream.
Chocolate, ice cream (except water ices). Cheese, except low fat cottage cheese.
Coconut and coconut oil.
Eggs - no more than 1 or 2 egg yolks per week, including that used in cooking.
Organ meats - liver, kidneys and brain.
Shellfish and fish roes.
Fried foods unless fried in polyunsaturated oil (like sunflower or corn oil).
Potato crisps and most nuts.
Gravy unless made with polyunsaturated oil, and tinned soups.
Salad dressing unless made with polyunsaturated oil.

Polyunsaturated margarine instead of butter.
Polyunsaturated oil, e.g. sunflower or corn oil in place of lard.
Bread, pasta, rice, oatmeal, breakfast cereals
Vegetables and fruit
Poultry (without skin)
Fish (grilled or steamed)
Skimmed or 1/2 cream milk
Jam, marmalade, honey, marmite
Tea or coffee
Alcoholic drinks (in moderation)

Anti-hot-flash (Post menopause) diet

As funny as the jokes about them are, hot flashes can create real discomfort. Most women will suffer from hot flashes at some time during their transition into menopause. Some women suffer for as long as 10 years, and others only briefly. Regardless of where you fall in the range, there are ways you can naturally help reduce the severity and frequency of hot flashes by altering your diet. Here's how the Anti-Hot-Flash Diet will help:

• Some foods actually contain compounds called phytoestrogens that mimic estrogen and can help normalize the level of estrogen in your body, thus alleviating hot flashes. There is a particular type of phytoestrogen, known as isoflavone, that gives these foods their hormonal traits. This diet is loaded with isoflavone-rich foods (soy milk, flaxseed, whole grains and berries) to provide some cooling relief.
• Alcohol, caffeine and spicy foods can dilate blood vessels and bring on hot flashes. This plan avoids all three triggers.

Immunity booster diet

You have your annual flu shot, frequently wash your hands and get plenty of rest to avoid getting a cold or the flu. But don't forget one of the most important strategies: your food choices! The Immunity Booster Diet includes certain foods that help your body marshal its defense system to prevent sickness. Here's how:

• Active acidophilus cultures, found in many yogurts, promote a strong digestive system. That's why this diet incorporates yogurt into its meal choices.
• Vitamin C helps to keep your immune system healthy, is used by your body during the healing process and may protect against cancer. This meal plan includes fruits, vegetables and juices high in vitamin C to help fight off illness.
• Whole grains and cereals contain more nutrients than highly processed foods. You'll find plenty of whole-grain breads and fortified cereals in the Immunity Booster plan.
• Garlic has antibiotic properties that can help prevent disease. This diet includes at least one clove each day in your foods.


Option One Option Two Option Three
Whole-wheat cereal with soy milk and banana
Herbal tea
Bran muffin with ground flaxseed
Half grapefruit
Hardboiled egg
Decaf coffee or herbal tea
Tofu Breakfast Burrito
Herbal tea


Option One Option Two Option Three
Bean soup
Spinach salad
Whole-wheat tortilla
Almond butter on cinnamon raisin whole-wheat bread
Veggie snacks
Soda water with juice
Miso Soup
Cheese and alfalfa sprout on multi-grain bread
Fresh apple


Option One Option Two Option Three
Veggie burger on whole-wheat bun with tomato, onion and lettuce
Carrot and raisin salad
Fresh berries and soy yogurt
Oriental Shrimp and Broccoli Stir Fry
Brown rice
Vegetarian Chili
Whole-wheat French bread
Mixed veggie salad
Fresh pineapple

Choose one or two a day:
• 1/4 cup roasted walnuts with 1/4 cup raisins
• Herb tea and a Better-Bran Muffin
• Veggies with low-fat dip
Strawberry Banana Smoothie
• Hummus spread on whole-wheat crackers


Here are a few eating tips to keep in mind when you're going through perimenopause and menopause.


• Keep a thermos of ice-cold water nearby at all times


• Drink coffee, colas and other beverages with caffeine
• Consume alcohol
• Eat spicy foods
• Eat large meals

Immunity booster diet

• Active acidophilus cultures, found in many yogurts, promote a strong digestive system. That's why this diet incorporates yogurt into its meal choices.
• Vitamin C helps to keep your immune system healthy, is used by your body during the healing process and may protect against cancer. This meal plan includes fruits, vegetables and juices high in vitamin C to help fight off illness.
• Whole grains and cereals contain more nutrients than highly processed foods. You'll find plenty of whole-grain breads and fortified cereals in the Immunity Booster plan.
• Garlic has antibiotic properties that can help prevent disease. This diet includes at least one clove each day in your foods.


You have your annual flu shot, frequently wash your hands and get plenty of rest to avoid getting a cold or the flu. But don't forget one of the most important strategies: your food choices! The Immunity Booster Diet includes certain foods that help your body marshal its defense system to prevent sickness. Here's how:

Option One Option Two Option Three
Orange juice
Oatmeal cooked with skim milk, topped with blueberries
Grapefruit juice
Fortified cold breakfast cereal with skim milk, topped with strawberries
Tomato juice with added vitamin C
Whole-grain toast spread with peanut butter


Option One Option Two Option Three
Quick and easy black bean soup
Red, green and yellow bell pepper slices with low-fat ranch dressing for "dip"
Vanilla yogurt mixed with chopped apples and raisins
Whole-wheat pita bread stuffed with turkey, dark green leafy lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers
Lemon yogurt mixed with strawberries and sprinkled with granola
Cheese pizza topped with broccoli, onions and mushrooms
Tossed salad with tomatoes, green and red bell peppers, and red cabbage
Low-fat salad dressing
Mixed fruit salad with vanilla yogurt


Option One Option Two Option Three
Garlic rosemary shrimp
Baked potato topped with low-fat sour cream
Spinach salad with green goddess dressing
Sliced melon
Marinated chicken breasts
Basic rice pilaf
Steamed broccoli
Angel food cake topped with strawberries
Traditional spaghetti and meatballs
Thinly sliced green, red and yellow bell peppers mixed with tomatoes and onions, and tossed with a vinaigrette dressing
Chopped papaya and mango, drizzled with honey



• Use a humidifier to add moisture to the air and prevent dry nasal passages, which encourage colds to take hold
• Take a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement to promote health
• Wash your hands regularly throughout the day, especially if you're around people who are fighting illness
• Get a flu shot, especially if you spend time with children, the elderly or those whose immune systems are compromised


• Smoke. Also avoid smoke-filled rooms to keep your lungs healthier
• Eat highly processed foods. Instead, focus on whole grains, fruits and vegetables


Strong bones (Anti-osteoporosis) diet

Women often have a hard time getting all of the calcium they need to maintain strong bones. Three out of four get less than the recommended intake (1,200 mg every day), with most getting less than half of what they should. At this rate, it's no wonder one out of two women end up with osteoporosis and suffer fractures. And it's not just lack of calcium in the diet that may be causing the disease, but other lifestyle choices as well: Smoking and too much alcohol both weaken our bones, while weight-bearing exercise is necessary to build and maintain bone.

Here's how the low-fat, high calcium Strong Bones Diet, when combined with an active lifestyle, can help make and keep your bones strong:

• Dairy foods provide more calcium per serving, by far, than any other food. Besides dairy products, this diet also includes other calcium-rich foods such as canned salmon and tofu -- giving you enough calcium here and there to add up to significant amounts.
• If you have difficulty digesting lactose, substitute calcium-fortified soy products, or use Lactaid or Dairy Ease tablets before eating. For those who are allergic to dairy or vegan, this meal plan includes calcium-fortified foods such as orange juice and cereals, calcium-processed soy products and calcium-rich vegetables like legumes, artichoke hearts, broccoli and beet greens.
• Your body can't absorb large doses of calcium (over 500 mg) at one time. This diet spreads out the doses among your meals and snacks.
• Though this food plan will help you get the recommended 1,200 mg of calcium each day, consider taking a calcium supplement if you modify this diet. The two most widely used supplements are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate, each of which contains between 200 and 500mg of supplemental calcium per pill. Calcium carbonate should be taken at meal times because it requires stomach acid to be dissolved and absorbed efficiently. Calcium citrate contains acid, so it may be more easily absorbed and can be taken at any time of day.


Option One Option Two Option Three
8-ounce glass of calcium-fortified orange juice
Whole-wheat bagel with 1 ounce low-fat cheddar cheese
Apple slices
Herb tea
Tofu Breakfast Burritos
Hot chocolate made from skim milk or hot soymilk
Cherry Vanilla Muesli or oatmeal made with skim milk instead of water and topped with banana
4 ounces calcium-fortified orange juice
Herb tea


Option One Option Two Option Three
Salmon salad (made with canned salmon and fat-free mayo) on a bed of greens
Whole-grain roll
8 ounces skim milk or calcium-fortified soymilk
Fresh fruit
Strawberry Soup
Open-faced smoked turkey breast sandwich on calcium-fortified bread with your choice of fresh vegetables and low-fat spread
Low-fat pizza for one made with 1 1/2 ounces part-skim mozzarella cheese
Small tossed salad topped with toasted sunflower seeds
Calcium-fortified juice
Herb tea


Option One Option Two Option Three
Fat-Free Seafood Chowder
Cornbread Muffin
Tossed green salad
Fresh fruits and nuts
Grilled chicken breast
Steamed kale
Basmati Rice with Exotic Spices
Large scoop non-fat frozen yogurt
Fish a la Grecque
Steamed brown rice
Asparagus spears
Banana Bread Pudding

SNACKS (choose one daily)

• Yogurt Fruit Delights
• Canned salmon salad on whole-wheat crackers
• Calcium-fortified low-fat soymilk and graham crackers
• Low-fat string cheese and apple slices
• 1/4 cup roasted soy nuts




• Get plenty of daily, weight-bearing exercise like jogging, hiking, aerobics, dancing, cross country skiing and golf (doesn't count if you use a cart!). Stimulation of the bones encourages bone-building cells (osteoblasts) to lay down calcium
• Get regular exposure to sunshine. Your body requires sunshine to make vitamin D, which you need to absorb calcium
• Take a daily multivitamin that includes zinc and magnesium as well as vitamins A and D, all of which are necessary for the proper absorption and utilization of calcium
• Eat oxalates (found in spinach, beet greens, rhubarb and chard) and phytates (found in the outer layer of many seeds, grains and beans) -- but be aware that these bind calcium to make it unabsorbable. Since these foods are good for you, don't avoid them -- but be sure to eat them separately from high-calcium foods and supplements


• Smoke. Smoking can decrease estrogen levels. This increases a woman's risk of osteoporosis because estrogen may suppress the bone-destroying osteoclasts and may stimulate the bone-building osteoblast cells
• Consume excessive sodium, which increases the urinary excretion of calcium
• Consume excessive phosphorus, which can be found in too much animal protein or some sodas. Phosphorus competes with calcium for vitamin D. Excess phosphorus means that less vitamin D is available for calcium absorption and bone building
• Get too stressed. Studies have suggested that cortisol, the hormone released when a person is under stress, may suppress bone formation
• Take a lot of aluminum-containing antacids because excessive amounts can interfere with calcium absorption. Read labels!
• Drink too much alcohol. Alcohol decreases the activity of osteoblasts, the bone-building cells


Pms prevention diet

You can't button your pants. Your head is pounding. And you've gone from happy to miserable and back again in a matter of minutes. You've got PMS! But you don't have to suffer endlessly. Now you can beat the bloat, alleviate cramps and headaches, and mellow your mood swings with the PMS Prevention Diet. Here's how:

• The saturated fat found in meat and whole-fat dairy products raises blood estrogen levels, which can aggravate PMS symptoms. So this plan focuses on lean fish, legumes, whole grains and high-fiber fruits and veggies instead.
• Safflower oil contains linolenic acid, which helps regulate prostaglandins, hormone-like substances responsible for bloating and breast tenderness. This diet uses safflower oil in salad dressings and in cooking.
• Caffeine increases irritability. By starting your day with herbal tea or decaf, you'll avoid it (and a few mood swings).
• Eating a low-sodium diet helps rid the body of excess fluids. This diet minimizes consumption of processed and salty foods.


Option One Option Two Option Three
SSwhole-grain cereal topped with banana slices and skim milk
calcium-fortified orange juice
herbal tea
fruit and yogurt sundae topped with muesli
chamomile or peppermint tea
egg-substitute veggie omelet
whole-grain toast
calcium-fortified orange juice
decaf coffee


Option One Option Two Option Three
black bean soup
tossed salad with safflower oil dressing
peanut butter sandwich on whole-grain bread
baby carrots
dried apricots
chicken salad sandwich with lettuce and tomato on whole grain bread
orange slices
skim milk


Option One Option Two Option Three
ginger orange tuna
baked sweet potato topped with lowfat plain yogurt
tossed salad with safflower oil dressing
chicken and broccoli pasta dijon
sliced tomatoes with fresh cracked pepper
stir-fried pork, pears and spinach
steamed brown rice


• decaf latte
• banana
• nonfat plain yogurt with fresh fruit
• vanilla soy milk



• Breathe deeply and do yoga
• Take 2 to 4 evening primrose capsules and 400 mg vitamin E daily
• Include 2 tablespoons of safflower oil in your daily diet
• Eat fiber-rich foods
• Satisfy chocolate cravings with small amounts of nonfat chocolate foods like cocoa, frozen yogurt or low-fat brownies (try Cathy's Chocolate Pudding!)


• Eat sugar
• Drink caffeinated beverages
• Eat salted foods

   Anti-migraine (Headache) diet

Headaches can be caused by many things, including illness, stress and lack of sleep. They may also be triggered by several common foods, and simply changing your diet could be the most effective treatment. Once you and your doctor have ruled out other potentially more serious causes for your headaches, take a look at what you eat every day and see if eliminating common trigger foods eliminates your headaches.

Here's how the Headache Prevention Diet can help:

• Dietary modifications that exclude common food triggers may help you pinpoint just what is causing your headaches. Although the list of potential food triggers is long (see the Dos and Don'ts section for a comprehensive list), the most common are chocolate, red wine, caffeine, MSG, Aspartame, cured meats, aged cheese, nuts, nitrate, sulfites, alcohol and ice cream. This diet excludes all common headache triggers, yet is still nutritionally balanced. Try following it for several weeks to see if it doesn't help reduce the number and severity of your headaches.
• Recent studies show that omega-three fatty acids, the kind found in fish oil, may help prevent migraines. This diet includes plenty of fish options that may reduce the frequency of your headaches.
• Caffeine, found in coffee, tea and colas, as well as more "hidden" sources like chocolate and some medications including Anacin, Excedrin and Actifed, can exacerbate headaches. This meal plan excludes foods that are high in caffeine and suggests alternatives (like herb tea and juices).


Option One Option Two Option Three
Non-citrus juice such as apple, pear or peach
Whole grain, calcium fortified cereal topped with skim milk or soy milk and fresh berries
Herb tea
Scrambled eggs (purchase those high in omega-three fatty acids) or add in some fresh cooked salmon or canned salmon and fresh herbs such as basil or cilantro
Fresh Blueberry Muffin or toasted whole grain bread
Herb tea
French toast recipe such as Seattle Apple French Toast (using skim milk)
100% juice
Herb tea


Option One Option Two Option Three
Vegetable cottage cheese (low fat) in whole-wheat pita with lettuce or sprouts
Fresh fruit
Herb tea
Homemade soup that doesn't contain prohibited foods, such as Asparagus and Sesame Chicken Soup (substituting cider vinegar for the rice wine vinegar)
Crusty roll
Calcium fortified juice
Tuna salad sandwich on whole grain bread with lettuce
Baby carrots
Strawberry Sports Shake
Oatmeal Cookies


Option One Option Two Option Three
Pasta stir-fry, such as Linguini Honey-Sauced Prawns
Steamed broccoli
Garlic bread sticks
Fresh fruit salad
Broiled fish, such as salmon or tuna
Baked potatoes
Sauteed zucchini
Microwave Rhubarb Crisp
Gingered Pork and Peaches (made without the lemon juice or peel)
Mashed potatoes
Mixed green salad
Cinnamon-Scented Raspberry Rice Pudding


• 1/2 cup cottage cheese topped with canned peaches and sprinkling of cinnamon
• 1/2 whole-wheat bagel with light cream cheese
• Hard-boiled egg and whole-wheat crackers
• Small bowl of high fiber cereal topped with skim milk or low-fat soy milk
• Soft and Chewy Molasses Cookie



• Take ginger at the first sign of a headache (1/3 teaspoon or 500 mg). According to the National Headache Foundation, ginger has a small amount of antihistamine and is an anti-inflammatory
• Get plenty of sleep. Although the reasons are not well understood, studies show that sleep deprivation can cause headaches
• Take a multivitamin supplement that includes the B vitamins and antioxidants. Deficiencies of these vitamins are a possible cause of migraines
• Read all labels very carefully to avoid trigger foods
• Avoid stress, which is considered a key headache trigger


• Go long periods without eating or forget to drink enough fluids. Low blood sugar or dehydration may be other dietary causes of headaches
• Consume artificial flavorings and preservatives, especially MSG, sulfites and nitrites. Most wines, many dried fruits and preserved fruits contain sulfites. Many canned foods contain the flavor enhancer MSG, particularly Chinese foods. Don't eat processed foods, and focus only on all natural, fresh foods. Also avoid cured meats including bacon, bologna, corned beef, ham, salami, sausage, hot dogs and smoked fish due to the nitrate content
• Eat foods containing artificial sweeteners, especially Aspartame, found in diet beverages, candy or gum. Be skeptical of foods labeled "diet" or "light"
• Eat legumes and broad beans, and pods of broad beans, including lima, navy, pinto, garbanzo, pole, fava, string and navy beans, lentils, snow peas and pea pods
• Consume hot, fresh, yeast-containing breads, including coffee cakes or doughnuts (okay if allowed to cool and okay toasted)
• Eat certain dairy products, including ripened cheeses (e.g., cheddar, brie, camembert, gruyere), whole milk, sour cream and yogurt
• Eat nuts, including peanuts, and seeds such as pumpkin or sunflower
• Eat fermented, pickled or marinated foods -- no pickles, olives, sauerkraut, chili peppers, miso, tempeh or soy sauce
• Eat particular fruits -- papayas, passion fruit, figs, dates, raisins, citrus fruits. Limit bananas to one a day. Limit tomatoes to 1/2 cup per day
• Use vinegars, except white and cider vinegar. Also avoid most mustard, mayonnaises and ketchups
• Eat food containing Brewer's yeast, large amounts of onion, chocolate and alcohol or red wine

Heart healthy diet

Are you concerned about your heart? Maybe you have a family history of heart disease, or perhaps you've been diagnosed with high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol or high triglyceride levels. The foods you choose to eat on a regular basis strongly influence the health of your heart and blood vessels. The Get Heart Healthy Diet will help you use healthy menu ideas to transform your current way of eating into a plan that your heart will love.

• Your fat intake should be no more than 25 to 35 percent of your total calories. Fat is high in calories, which can contribute to excess body weight -- the more body fat you have, the harder your heart has to work. This diet includes a balanced amount of fat to keep your heart healthy. (If you have or are at risk for heart disease, you may need to cut your fat intake to 20 percent. Consult your physician for guidance.)
• Your saturated fat intake should be no more than seven percent of total calories. Saturated fat is found primarily in animal fats (the skin on poultry, the fat on red meat and foods high in fat, like lunch meats and sausage), dairy products with fat (cheese and milk) and fats that are solid at room temperature such as butter, solid shortening and lard. Saturated fat intake is the greatest contributor to body levels of cholesterol -- the more saturated fat we eat, the higher our cholesterol levels. This meal plan will help you keep saturated fat to a minimum in your diet.
• Soy foods contain beneficial protein -- 25 grams of soy protein per day may help reduce risk of heart disease. Substitute soy milk for skim milk, choose tofu or tempeh daily, snack on soy nuts or enjoy a smoothie made with soy milk and fruit. This diet includes options to help you incorporate soy into your current diet.
• Trans fatty acids are formed when foods are fried (think of french fries and chicken nuggets) or when liquid fats are made into solid fats (like corn oil made into margarine). Snack crackers, cookies and pastries may also contain trans fatty acids. This food plan helps you avoid trans fatty acids by offering meal choices so tasty that you won't miss the extra fat.
• You should eat nine servings of fruits and vegetables every day. Don't let that number frighten you; it's as simple as fruit with every meal, two vegetable servings with lunch and dinner, and two glasses of fruit or vegetable juice. This diet makes it easy to eat enough fruits and veggies without thinking twice.


Option One Option Two Option Three
1 cup oatmeal (made with skim milk) topped with 1/2 cup blueberries Flaxseed Muffins
1 cup mixed fruit salad
1 cup skim milk
1 cup Cheerios
Skim milk
1 banana


Option One Option Two Option Three
1 cup water-packed tuna mixed with 1/2 cup chopped vegetables (try celery, jicama, green and red pepper, radishes, carrots) and 2 tablespoons reduced-fat mayonnaise on a bed of dark green lettuce
1 cup grapes
Soy Tomato Soup
1 cup carrot, green pepper and celery sticks
1/2 grapefruit
2 cups black bean soup
Jicama Mango Coleslaw
1 peach


Option One Option Two Option Three
Grilled Salmon with Fruit Salsa
1/2 cup acorn squash (top with a dash of cinnamon and brown sugar)
1 cup steamed asparagus topped with minced garlic sauteed in olive oil
1/2 cup fresh fruit salad
Spaghetti and meatballs (substitute textured vegetable protein for half of the ground beef to add soy protein to this meal)
2 cups tossed salad with a vinaigrette dressing made from olive oil
1/2 cup pineapple
Bean tortilla (use a whole wheat soft tortilla instead of a crisp shell to cut down on fat and spread with vegetarian refried beans to reduce saturated fat) topped with low-fat sour cream, part-skim mozzarella and salsa
1/2 cup raw broccoli with a low-fat salad dressing for "dip"
1 pear

Bring your own snacks with you to avoid resorting to vending machines or convenience stores. Remember to choose vegetables and fruit for snacks to count your way to nine total servings per day!

• Smoothie made with soy milk, yogurt and fresh fruit (try banana and strawberry, pineapple and banana, or blueberry and peaches)
• Baked apple topped with fat-free vanilla yogurt
• 1/4 cup soy nuts
• High fiber cereal (look for at least 5 grams of fiber per serving) with skim milk
• 1 small handful walnuts (yes, they are high in fat, but this type of fat helps protect our heart)
• Variety of cut-up fresh vegetables with a fat-free salad dressing for "dip"
• Variety of cut-up fresh fruit with fat-free vanilla yogurt for "dip"
• Sherbet or sorbet topped with fresh fruit
• Water-packed tuna on crackers (note -- this can be a higher sodium snack)
• Freeze grapes or bananas for a refreshing icy cold treat
• Air-popped popcorn
• Frozen fruit juice Popsicle
• Salsa with veggies
• Small handful dried fruit



• Choose seafood twice each week for healthy types of essential fatty acids
• Sprinkle ground flaxseed on cereal or in smoothies, choose breakfast cereal that contains flaxseed, or use ground flaxseed in muffins or pancakes. Flaxseed is high in omega-3 fatty acids, which help protect our heart health
• Double the number of your vegetarian meals each week. If you currently eat one meatless meal per week, add another. If you eat two meatless meals per week (and it can be as simple as peanut butter on a whole-wheat sandwich for lunch or spaghetti with tomato sauce for dinner), increase it to four. Meatless meals contain less saturated fat and more fiber -- a double bonus
• Use legumes (dried beans and peas such as kidney beans, garbanzo beans, black beans, lentils, etc.) as often as possible as low-fat protein for heart-healthy soluble fiber


• Use the salt-shaker! Use saltless herb seasoning mixes instead
• Eat frozen dinners, frozen vegetables with sauces (make your own sauce!), fast food, canned vegetables and soups (unless you search out lower sodium brands) or anything with visible salt, like pretzels. Avoiding these foods will help keep your salt intake low

Ethnic diets

• Diet may influence the types of illnesses or physical conditions present in a given culture. For example:

• Low intake of milk and dairy products may predispose to bone disorders, such as rickets or osteoporosis.

• High sodium (salt) intake is often a factor in hypertensions (high blood pressure).

• High caloric intake often causes people in certain cultural groups to be overweight. Obesity is a status symbol in some cultures.

• Intake of high amounts of fried foods and fats may predispose to atherosclerosis, gallbladder difficulties, and obesity.

• Long cooking of vegetables may cause deficiency of water-soluble vitamins.

• Foods high in cholesterol and saturated fat may predispose to blood vessel conditions, such as atherosclerosis and to obesity.

• High sugar intake may predispose to dental caries and obesity.

• Lactose intolerance in many people of a given race or ethnic group is reflected in their limited use of dairy products. Calcium needs must be met in another way (fermented cheeses or yougurt, for example).

• Certain ethnic foods may be difficult to obtain or may be expensive in the United States.

• Availability of foods has a direct bearing on the consumption of that food.

• Many immigrants change their eating habits after coming to the United States. This can either improve nutrition or predispose them to certain physical disorders.

• Easily accessible transportation of foods, mass communication, and “fast food” chains have resulted in a blending of many dietary practices.

• People of all ethnic groups have a source of starch or carbohydrate, whether it is pasta, potatoes, bread, or rice.

Diet in Relation to Illness

• Many people find comfort in traditional ethnic foods when ill, even if they do not follow these traditions when they are well.

• The family or the patient may insist on following religious or cultural practices during illness.

• Certain foods are ascribed "hot"or "cold"by some properties unrelated to temperature groups, and are eaten to offset or combat certain illness that are considered "hot"or "cold".

• Certain foods are believed to cause illness by some groups, who thus avoid these foods.

• Hospital food might not be acceptable because it violates a cultural or religious practice. In some cases, the ill person is “exempted” from following religious food practices during the illness.

Patient teaching: dietary guide

Eat a variety of foods Avoid too much sugar

Include selections of:
• Fruits
• Vegetables
• Whole grain and enriched breads, cereals, and grain products
• Milk, cheese, yogurt
• Meats, fish, poultry, eggs
• Legumes (dry peas and beans)

• Use less of all sugar, including white sugar, brown sugar, honey, and syrup.
• Eat less of foods containing sugar, such as candy, soft drinks, ice cream, cake, cookies.
• Select fresh fruits or fruits canned without sugar or with light syrup (no heavy syrup).
• Read food labels to determine sugar content. (Remember: The first ingredient listed is the largest amount in the product.) Sucrose, maltose, dextrose, lactose, etc., are also sugars.
• Remember that how often you eat sugar is as important as how much sugar you eat.

Maintain ideal weight Avoid too much fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol

• Increase physical activity
• Eat less fat and fatty foods
• Eat less sugar and sweets
• Avoid too much alcohol

• Choose lean meat, fish, poultry, dry beans, and peas as protein sources
• Moderate use of eggs and organ meat (such as liver)
• Limit intake of butter, cream, hydrogenated margarines, shortening, and coconut oil
• Trim excess fat off meats
• Broil, bake, or boil (rather than fry) food
• Read labels to determine amounts and types of fat in foods

Avoid too much sodium

• Learn to enjoy unsalted flavor of foods
• Cook with only small amount of salt
• Add little or no salt at the table
• Limit intake of salty foods (salted nuts, popcorn, soy sauce, pickles, cured and smoked meats, etc.)
• Read labels to determine amounts of salt (sodium)
Remember: Sodium is contained in some artificial sweeteners

Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation

• Substitute starches for fats and sugars
• Select foods that are good sources of fiber and starch, such as whole-grain breads and cereals, fruits, and vegetables, beans, peas, and nuts

• Pregnant women should be especially careful not to drink alcohol. It is best not to drink during pregnancy, but vital to limit to a maximum of 2 ounces on any single day
• Drink plenty of water